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Skin diseases: Onychocryptosis and Scabies

Scabies is caused by the parasite sarcoptes scabei. The infestation is produced by skin-to-skin contact, being located in the interdigital furrows, the wrists, armpits, buttocks, genitals and breast folds.

The scabies is an infection caused by a microscopic mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. It is a very common human parasite, spread through close person-to-person contact.

Is it still frequent?

Although the word “scabies” sounds like bygone times of war or poverty, the disease is prevalent , even in developed countries. It does not necessarily affect people with poor hygiene, but it can also be observed in clean and healthy people since to contract it you only need to be in contact with an infected person.

However, it is more common in people who live in crowded conditions and in closer contact, because contagion is easier. It is a more common disease in the third world , but it is not rare in the first world.

What symptoms does it give?

The main symptom that can make you suspect a scabies is the itching that predominates at night, and that affects someone else who has had close contact with the patient.

The diagnosis is easier if there are several affected relatives. The lesions that appear on the skin are not very specific, since most are abrasions and irritations from scratching . The experienced eyes of a dermatologist can detect more specific signs on the skin, such as nodules or lumps in the genital area or the small grooves that the mite makes under the skin and that can be seen mainly on the hands , between the fingers, or on the wrists.

How is it treated?

Scabies requires correct treatment, aimed both at eliminating the mite and disinfecting clothing and items that have been in contact with it. In general, it is treated topically, with antiparasitic lotions that must be applied as directed by the doctor.

The clothes washing at high temperature to disinfect , except the clothes can not be washed in hot, which is disinfected the store in a plastic bag for two weeks. When treating the patient, make sure to explore, and where appropriate treat, the people who live with him, who may also have contracted the disease.

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW

  • It is transmitted by person-to-person contact .
  • Main symptom: itching , especially at night.
  • Treatment: topical antiparasitic lotion , as directed by the best skin specialist in south delhi.

Onychocryptosis

The nail or onychocryptosis is a wound that occurs when an edge of the nail digs under the skin of the finger due to badly cut nails, tight shoes or malformations in the foot. It can originate from both toenails and fingernails.

Fingernails are inflammations that occur when a toenail grows incorrectly and digs into the flesh . Ingrown toenails are a very common and annoying disorder that causes tenderness, redness, and swelling on the side of the affected finger. In addition to the intense pain they cause, if the ingrown toenail is not cured and treated it can become infected .

Why are fingernails formed?

  • Badly cutting nails : when we cut our nails very short (especially at the ends) or cut them in a rounded shape, causing the corner of the nail to dig into the flesh.
  • Pick or tear off the edges .
  • Inappropriate shoes : wearing shoes that are too narrow or small can put pressure on the nails and cause them to curve downward and part of it find its way into the periungular groove, that is, the groove that surrounds the nail or sides.
  • Malformations : people who have malformations in the feet (osteoarthritis) or in the structure of the nail (arched, volute or curled) may be more prone to have fingernails.
  • Microtrauma : when the feet suffer small repetitive blows or small trauma, usually due to a specific activity, that is why it is very important to use appropriate shoes, for example, at work or sports.
  • Subungual exostosis : protrusion of bone in the distal phalanx of the first toe that presses the nail underneath.
  • Other factors : excessive sweating and lack of perspiration of the feet, abuse of hot water, fungi (onychomycosis), protruding periungular rims, excess weight or gait disturbances.

Nail types

Before treating a nail, you must know the degree of involvement of the nail and the surrounding flesh:

  • Grade I : only inflammation, redness and pain occur.
  • Grade II : an infection usually caused by germs that live on the skin’s surface occurs. This can cause pus to appear and if the skin tightens it can tear and allow the abscess to drain.
  • Grade III : a granulation tissue is created on the edge of the nail due to chronic inflammation, forming a periungular hypertrophic tissue.

How to cure an ingrown toenail?

These are the steps you should follow to heal an ingrown toenail depending on how advanced the wound is:

  1. Keeping the foot as clean as possible to avoid bacteria overgrowth, for example by changing socks regularly.
  2. Wear comfortableand wide shoes that avoid pressure on the fingers and nails.
  3. Take lukewarm baths3 or 4 times a day to soften the nail.
  4. If it hurts too much, you can turn to over-the -counter pain relieverslike acetaminophen or ibuprofen and other anti-inflammatories like metamizole that can relieve pain.
  5. In case the nail is infected or at risk of infection, topical or oral antibioticscan be used .

If the nail does not improve within 2 or 3 days or if it worsens, you should see a doctor . The specialist will make a diagnosis based on the patient’s symptoms and the results of a physical examination of the nail and surrounding skin. Then they will recommend a specific treatment that may or may not include the use of pain relievers or antibiotics.

 

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